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Civil War History Notes
HISTORY 311 NOTES – SEPTEMBER 24th until OCTOBER 24th HIS 311 SEPT 24
-1861- Civil War begins
-Nov.-dec "TRENT" incident
-Oct.-St. Alban\'s rd.
-1865- Reciprocity Tr. denounced
-1866- Fenian Invasion
-public opinion & foreign policy
-xtrnl coincide w/ intrnl issues
-colonies and their costs
COMPARISON OF CAN AND US
-Can and US are parallel
-major events, trade are shared
-civil society devl\'p same way
-culture is same exc. QUE, Louisiana certain parts speak french
-1820 on - immersed in issue of slavery. (afro-american) in Brit Col.
-"Mason-Dixon line" separates north: anti-slavery, south: legal
- 1833: abolit\'n of slavery in BR colonies and empire
-Can had slavery but abolished at same time as North US.
-Slavery is great int\'l cost.
-Slavery is an Int\'l issue that begins to greatly affect national issue
-U.S. can\'t agree on slavery
-North feared that south would take over and imply slavery
-this contreversy spilled onto Can
ABRAHAM LINCOLN NEW PREZ-1860
-Dec 1860 -61: 11 southern states leave union.
-N. goes to war vs. S to bring them back into the union
- not involved in war
-S aka: Confederate States may become 3rd country in NA
- ratio of pop. US:Can = 11:1
-Can thinks good opportunity if 3rd country in NA: no more under to US
-most Cand\'n believe that slavery is evil. So most agree w/ N
- Cand\'s divided into N and S
-Eastern Canada gets many newspapers: divided b/w conservatives who agree with N and liberals siding w/ S
-Liberals (S ) are fighting for freedom to do whatever . -Conservatives say (S ) are barberic animals and north must triumph.
CANADA: inlists in war because:
1. belief in cause of anti-slavery
3. Money - army is occupation
can pay someone to take your place
4. Kidnapping-Can\'s kidnapped force to join US army
-Canada is neutral, not favour one
-not sovereign states.
-south is not really separate yet, just rebellious.
-“key to winning is to have foreign intervention.”
-hoping that S would be recognized as coutnry and N should back down.
-mixed feelings re US
-public opinion: indifferent or hate
-2 confeder8 diplomats sent to BRIT on The TRENT steamship. Thru neutral ports.
-when ship sailed near Nrthn coast diplomats were arrested & set to jail.
-Ld. Palmerston - BR. - disruption of human rights, demands release of 2 diplomats
-Br mobilizes its best army taken to Nova Scotia ready to deploy into US
-lincoln releases 2 confederates.
-sending army to Can a reminider that colonies are expensive
-if americans were to attack, Br could only defend Halifax not Mon nor TO.
-empire costly, and ungr8ful, Can does not wnat to help Br defend themselves
2 PARTIES in gov\'t are = in power
-invites BR to join Can to confederation
-starts 1864 - spring 1866
-agree to form larger confederation.
-way for Br to retract their expenditure on Can. so they support confederation
-not popular in Nova Scotia
-Br ignored Nova Scotians
-Br brot down New Bruns anti confederation party.
-Br helped Can a lot for confdr8t\'n
-Can raising tariffs on US
-oct. 1864 - Montreal Can\'s go St. Alban\'s , Vermont and robbed a bank
-Montrealers arrested and judge let the robbers go w/ the money
1.US mad, if another incident US army would march into Can
2. Mar. 17, 1867 - denounces Reciprocity Treaty.
-Hostility from US gov\'t
- part of Br.
-catholic vs. protestants
-1840\'s famine, migration to US , Can, Aus: Protestants bitter to Br.
-US and Can don\'t like immigration
-Ire assimil8 to Can political system
- protestants in US want revenge on Br but far away so no hard backlash.
-use Irish army veterans to attack Can to revenge on Br
-Can ships men to point of attack
-1866, June the Fenians invaded CAn from Buffalo,
-US gov\'t late awareness: cut-off Fenians and laid down arms
-costly for Can to ship men
-the Fenian danger pushes Can to form confederation.
-July 1st 1867 fedaration of ON QUE
not B.C. NS., NB
1. Public opinion influences national and international decisions
2. colonies and its costs
3. Can is a product of external influences. Can was pushed together because of US threat.
HIS 311 SEPT 26
Canada in 1867
-3.5 million population resided mainly in ON & QU
-2 national parties
-Can: NS, NB, ON, QU
-30-31% spoke Fr. living in Qu
-QU had 80% french speaking
-60% p rotestant, 40% Catholics
-up to today, no prime minister have been anything else but Lib or Con
-Cabinet, Gov\'t: hard fought elections
Macdonald 1815-?: ON
-knighted by Queen Victoria
-saw that Can should accept Eng/Fr.
-colonial period therefore colonial position
-loyal to both
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